Neurological & Spinal Oncology


Acoustic neuroma, also known as vestibular schwannoma, is a noncancerous tumor that grows on the nerves responsible for hearing (cochlear) and balance (vestibular) between the inner ear and the brain. The tumor’s growth exerts pressure on the nerve, leading to hearing loss and imbalance. It is essential to diagnose and treat acoustic neuroma early to prevent further complications.


Astrocytoma tumors are a type of slow-growing tumor that occurs in the brain or spinal cord. Symptoms are caused by increased pressure in the skull or spinal canal and include headaches, seizures, vomiting, drowsiness, decreased energy, mood swings, and impaired mental focus. Seek medical attention if any of these symptoms are experienced, as early detection and treatment can lead to better outcomes.


A brain tumor is a condition where abnormal cells grow and form a mass in the brain. There are various types of brain tumors, and they can be either noncancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). Primary brain tumors develop inside the brain or Brain tumors can be primary or metastatic. Primary tumors arise in the brain tissue, while metastatic tumors spread to the brain from other parts of the body. Symptoms of brain tumors include headaches, seizures, nausea, vision problems, hearing impairment, and difficulty with speech and balance.


Chordoma is a rare type of cancer that arises from the remnants of the notochord. It is most commonly found in the sacrum (the lower part of the spine) or the base of the skull. The symptoms of chordoma depend on the size and location of the tumor. Surgery is the primary treatment option, and long-term follow-up is crucial to prevent the cancer from spreading.


Craniopharyngioma is a non-cancerous brain tumor that can be aggressive and impact surrounding structures. It’s most commonly found in children, but can also affect adults in their 50s and 60s. Symptoms include headaches, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, mood swings, visual impairment, excessive thirst, increased urination, and weight gain.


Cushing’s Disease is caused by excessive cortisol hormone production. It can be caused by prolonged use of oral corticosteroids or a tumor in the pituitary gland. Symptoms include weight gain, fatty tissue deposits, stretch marks, and thinning skin, delayed healing, acne, fatigue, mood swings, and weakness.


Ependymal tumors are a type of brain or spinal cord tumor that originate in the ependymal cells lining the passageways where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced and stored. These tumors can be slow or fast-growing and are commonly observed in children and men and women in their 40s or 50s. Ependymomas may cause obstruction of normal CSF flow, leading to Hydrocephalus. People with ependymal tumors may experience a range of signs and symptoms such as headaches, nausea, vomiting, difficulty walking, fatigue, sleepiness, problems with motor skills, coordination issues, neck pain or stiffness, and visual impairment.


Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a Grade IV glioma which is the most invasive type of glial tumor. It is known for its rapid growth and brain infiltration. GBMs typically affect adults between the ages of 45 and 70 and account for approximately 15% of brain-based tumors.


Glioma is a type of tumor that initiates in the brain or spinal cord, and it is named after the glial cell, which is the cell of origin. Glial cells surround and protect the neurons of the brain. They can affect all age groups but are more commonly seen in adults. Additionally, gliomas are slightly more common in men than in women.


Meningioma is a type of tumor that develops from the meninges, which are the protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Depending on the location of the tumor, it can cause various symptoms such as seizures, headaches, difficulty with memory or concentration, impaired motor skills, fatigue, muscle aches, mood changes, trouble speaking, weakness, and even paralysis.


Metastatic Brain Tumors are the most common type of brain tumor. These tumors are formed when cancer cells from other parts of the body spread to and infiltrate the brain. Most of these tumors are found in the cerebellum, and about half of the people who have one Metastatic Brain Tumor will have multiple tumors in the brain.


Metastatic spinal tumors are tumors that originate from cancer cells that have spread from another part of the body to the spine. The spine is a common site for metastatic cancer, and these tumors can affect any part of the spine, including the vertebrae, nerves, spinal cord, and protective membranes called meninges (such as the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater).


Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder that affects the growth of cells in the central nervous system, leading to the formation of tumors on the nerve tissue. These tumors can develop anywhere in the nervous system, but they are most commonly found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. There are two categories of neurofibromatosis based on the severity of the tumors: NF1 and NF2. Although these tumors are usually benign, in some cases, they can become malignant.


Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths that can cause hormonal imbalances and other issues. Most of them are non-cancerous but can cause problems if they grow too large. Microadenomas are less than 1 cm, while macroadenomas are larger than 1 cm and can increase pressure on the pituitary gland.


A schwannoma is a type of tumor that develops in the sheaths of nerves located in the peripheral nervous system. This system comprises all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. Schwannomas are also known as neurilemomas, neuromas, or neurolemomas. In most cases, schwannomas are benign, which means they are not cancerous and do not pose a threat to health.

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